Foreword Preface Section I.
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If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. Germfree plants can be obtained from seeds that have been surface-sterilized. The embryos of mammals are normally bacteriologically sterile, and germfree young can be obtained by cesarean operation, under germfree conditions, with transfer of the mature embryo into a sterile isolator. These young must be fed by hand to avoid contamination by the mother. Subsequent reproduction of hand-reared germfree mammals allows routine production of germfree colonies.
Germfree rats or mice can be purchased from breeding companies and transferred via a shipping isolator into a laboratory experimental isolator. The isolator is a physical barrier through which no living microorganisms can pass. It may be a small or large container, usually made of glass and steel or plastic, with plastic or rubber gloves.
A sterile room may also serve as an isolator. The laboratory isolator has an entry for the organism, food, and utensils; a source of air with exhaust; and, usually, arm-length gloves.
Food and utensils are sterilized and taken into the isolator through an adjoining area called the sterile lock. Special attachments may be a liquid dip tank, a shipping cage, a bacterial filter for liquids, or a second isolator.
The most widely used isolator is a soft plastic sacklike container that comes in many shapes and sizes. Sterilization of metal isolators and most utensils is accomplished with steam under pressure. Air for the isolated organism is sterilized by mechanical filtration. Eggs are surface-treated with mercuric chloride, and seeds with peracetic acid or formalin. Food and water are sterilized by steam, irradiation, or filtration, depending upon the requirements of the investigation. Diets fed to germfree animals are comparable to those fed to conventional animals.
The addition of one or two specific microorganisms to germfree animals can clarify cause-and-effect relationships that are important in human disease. The complex interactions of pathogenic disease-causing microorganisms with the bacteria that normally inhabit the body can be partially elucidated by infecting germfree laboratory animals with such organisms.
The techniques of gnotobiology have been used to clarify the causes of certain common human health problems. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Contributions of gnotobiology to nutrition science. Authors Authors and affiliations H. Haenel J. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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The differences between germ free and specific-pathogen-free mice
Science , Coates M. CrossRef Google Scholar. Animals 9 , Google Scholar. Combe E. Teneurs de quelques tissus en acides nucleiques. Animal Biochem.
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Enzymic properties and distribution in the digestive tract of conventional and germ-free animals. Danielsson H. Bile acids and steroids. Dubos R. Ducluzeau R. Compt, Rend. Paris ,