Teaching Phonemic Awareness through Childrens Literature and Experiences

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Struggling readers may have poor phonological awareness; therefore, it is SO critical to work on that in the early grades. But guess what? In the car, in a waiting room, or waiting in the lunch line. One of the easiest and most natural ways to work on phonemic awareness is through read alouds. Word List Builder is a time-saving, web-based tool that is going to streamline the lesson planning process for you. In this part one tutorial video, I show you how to set up a folder and begin searching for words.

Try Tutor Finder Directory! At our web page, we give you a committed essay blogger who could make your jobs completed inside of many hours. The possibilities are endless when thinking of new and exciting ways to use favorite stories. Chiappe et al.

Generalizing findings from these studies to Chinese ESL children in a non-English speaking environment such as Hong Kong remains doubtful for a few reasons. First, Hong Kong children learn English as a school subject but their exposure to the English language is generally limited.

Learning to read Chinese and English thus relies heavily on rote memory. Consequently, children may not pay attention to letter sounds or letter names within a word in the word reading process.

What Is Phonemic Awareness - Reading Program For Kids, Phonics For Children

This may be due to the instructional experiences as described above or to the characteristics of the Chinese language, which has virtually no consonant clusters. Previous research has shown that Hong Kong ESL children are relatively weak in phonological awareness in both languages compared to other Chinese reading groups such as Chinese children from Mainland China and Canada because there is no phonetic code to aid Chinese reading for Hong Kong children McBride-Chang et al.

Despite such a linguistic and educational environment that does not encourage Hong Kong children to develop phonological awareness skills, recent investigations have demonstrated the importance of phonological awareness in the early L2 reading development of Chinese ESL learners Cheung et al. For example, McBride-Chang and Kail examined the role of phonological awareness at the syllable level, speeded naming, visual processing and speed of processing in beginning English reading performance of kindergarten students in Hong Kong.

Phonological awareness was reported to be the strongest predictor of reading among various measures. Research evidence has supported the role of phonological awareness in different forms in facilitating the early L2 reading of Hong Kong children. In most of the studies involving Chinese kindergarteners e. The present study attempted to address this issue by incorporating measures of phonological awareness at the levels of syllable, rime and phoneme and investigating the growth of phonological awareness at varied levels after receiving phonological awareness instruction.

The significant role of phonological awareness in L2 reading development has prompted researchers to examine the effects of phonological awareness instruction in helping ESL children to acquire L2 reading skills. For instance, Ganschow and Sparks demonstrated that explicit and systematic training in Spanish phonological awareness was able to improve English phonological awareness, word reading and spelling in Spanish—English bilingual children who may have had reading difficulties.


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The findings support the idea that early theory-driven instruction is effective in helping ESL learners who have little or no prior input of English oral language to acquire English reading skills. Nevertheless, as aforementioned, the generalizability of these results to Chinese ESL children remains to be investigated.

Becoming Real Readers

Moreover, relatively few studies in the field have involved class teachers in undertaking instruction and working with children in large groups in a kindergarten setting. In Hong Kong kindergarten classrooms, L2 oral inputs are generally limited and both reading and vocabulary acquisition tend to rely more on print than on speech Cheung et al. As there is a lack of English exposure outside the classroom, Hong Kong young children tend to have weak oral language proficiency. The segmental representation of word phonology increases at fine-grained level as development continues.

The degree to which the restructured segmental representation has taken place contributes to the development of phonological awareness and subsequently influences the processes of learning to read and write. On the other hand, the acquisition of literacy may influence the further development of phonological awareness and thus may lead to re-organization of the segmental representation or lexical categories.

In this vein, phonological awareness may contribute to the further development of lexicon.

The Top 6 Picture Books For Building Phonological Awareness

The lexical restructuring hypothesis contends that there are close relationships between vocabulary growth and phonological awareness and reading development. Enhanced phonological awareness stimulated vocabulary growth. We argue that the lexical restructuring hypothesis is applicable to the ESL children in Hong Kong because vocabulary is the main focus in Hong Kong kindergarten English curriculum and children are expected acquire basic vocabulary during the kindergarten years.

Therefore, despite weak oral language proficiency, their lexicon undergoes restructuring as a result of vocabulary growth. In this connection, in designing instructional program for ESL children, the level of oral language proficiency, particularly vocabulary, has to be taken into consideration.

The Top 6 Picture Books For Building Phonological Awareness

Some research evidence has supported this idea. For example, Ayres integrated a phonological approach with literacy-based activities such as word games and storytelling.


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It was found that children benefited most when they were exposed to literacy-based activities first and then to direct and explicit instruction about phonological awareness. Literacy building activities seem to facilitate the explicit instruction in segmentation of words.

Therefore, the current study was designed to test the effects of phonological awareness instruction integrated with vocabulary learning activities. In summary, previous studies have established a relationship between the L2 phonological awareness and L2 reading skills of Chinese ESL children.

Phonological awareness (emergent literacy)

This study was designed to examine the effects of language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on phonological awareness skills, oral language proficiency, reading and spelling in young Chinese ESL children from Hong Kong. There were two conditions: a language-enriched phonological awareness instruction and b English language activities focusing on vocabulary learning and word writing as a treated comparison. Specifically, the following research questions were addressed:. Would children with language-enriched phonological awareness instruction perform better at posttest than the comparison group children on a phonological awareness skills at syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, b receptive and expressive vocabulary, and c word reading and pseudoword reading, and d spelling?

At the beginning of the study, four kindergartens located in Hong Kong participated. Seventy-six children from three kindergartens completed the instructional program and the posttest. There were 38 children in the instructional group and 38 in the comparison group. The class teachers reported that no participating children were observed to show any signs of developmental disabilities or neurological disorders. All the participating schools are typical Hong Kong kindergartens in which Cantonese is used as the medium of instruction and English is regarded as a school subject.

The teachers of the participating kindergartens reported that no systematic phonics teaching was provided. All children in this study spoke Cantonese at home. The parents of these children are mainly lower class or lower-middle class Hong Kong people who would not communicate with their child in English at home. Generally, the children were only exposed to English oral language at school in the English lessons delivered by the NETs. All children were tested and participated in the instructional program in their first semester of the school year.

There were 38 boys and 38 girls who completed the study and their mean age was 5. There were six participating teachers, three from each of the instructional and comparison groups, all of whom possessed a higher diploma in early childhood education from Hong Kong tertiary institutions. The average teaching experiences of the instructional and comparison group teachers were 4 and 4. All of the teachers were Cantonese speakers. The current instruction was supplementary to existing English language and reading instruction that the children received in their schools.

Information about the English curriculum from each school was collected and there were no differences among the three participating schools in terms of the learning goals and content. The current instructional program was based on the work by Bennett and Ottley Their program followed a fixed sequence: awareness of sound as a unit of words, syllable segmentation, rhyming, onset and rime and discrimination. In this study, the children went through only the first five instructional components of the program. They were taught to understand that one English word may have multiple syllables and to tap syllables within a word.

Rhyming skills and phoneme identity initial and final were also taught. Existing English instruction in Hong Kong does not use explicit teaching of phonological concepts and skills. In each stage, practice time was included. In each learning activity, clear learning outcomes and necessary resources were stated. The program was activity-oriented and paper-and-pencil tasks were not included. For example, in learning syllable awareness, the children were asked to tap syllables on body parts and practices were done with orally presented words with different numbers of syllables e.

In each session, the children were first taught the vocabulary to be used for the day. The vocabulary instruction was direct and explicit. Children were first provided with kid-friendly definition of the targeted words and then exposed to the vocabulary in meaningful contexts and simple English sentences. They were then instructed to play games that provided them with rich opportunities to name the pictures associated with the targeted words.

However, the vocabulary was chosen based on the content of the phonological awareness part.

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