At the height of the Napoleonic wars between Britain and France, the propaganda machine on both sides presented various scenarios of the potential outcome. It was the new technology, though, that was most alarming. The French had first crossed the English Channel by hot air balloon in , and the threat of an aerial invasion fleet was ever present in English minds. This was further aggravated by the idea of a Channel Tunnel, which Napoleon had considered and for which plans had been prepared by Albert Mathieu in Another poster, released in , showed huge troop movements across the Channel not only by balloon and boat but also through the tunnel.
Chesney believed that Great Britain was unprepared for an armed invasion from Germany, especially after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War of The story is told in retrospect from 50 years in the future when a soldier recounts to his grandson the terrible events.
They march upon London and the final battle is at Dorking in the Surrey Hills. The British army is defeated. Germany takes control of Britain, and the Empire is disbanded. The reaction to the story was immediate. The British, having grown complacent with their military superiority, were horrified and the Government had to reassure the public that plans to review the army were already in hand. The story was published in a separate booklet and sold in tens of thousands throughout Europe.
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Robida has a worldwide war start in , fought using armed blockhouse tanks, submarines, aerial bombing and chemical warfare. The Great Exhibition attracts six million visitors to London's new Crystal Palace in a period of only six months. Lord John Russell's Whig administration collapses, and Lord Derby follows him as a Conservative prime minister at the head of a coalition government.
Go to Houses of Parliament in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Scottish physicist William Thomson formulates the second law of thermodynamics, concerning the transfer of heat within a closed system. Lord Aberdeen, leader of the 'Peelite' minority of the Conservative party, forms a new coalition government with the Liberals.
Overview: Victorian Britain, 1837 - 1901
David Livingstone makes a heroic six-month journey from the Zambezi river to the west coast of Africa. The hypodermic syringe with a plunger is simultaneously developed in France and in Scotland. Go to hypodermic syringe in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Boers establish the Orange Free State as an independent republic, with its own custom-built constitution. English physician John Snow proves that cholera is spread by infected water from a pump in London's Broad Street. Britain and France enter the war between Turkey and Russia, on the Turkish side.
Florence Nightingale, responding to reports of horrors in the Crimea, sets sail with a party of twenty-eight nurses. Go to Nightingale, Florence — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. An inconclusive battle at Balaklava includes the Charge of the Light Brigade, with British cavalry recklessly led towards Russian guns.
Within six weeks of the Charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimea, Tennyson publishes a poem finding heroism in the disaster. Jamaican-born nurse Mary Seacole sets up her own 'British Hotel' in the Crimea to provide food and nursing for soldiers in need. Roger Fenton travels out from England to the Crimea — the world's first war photographer.
Go to Fenton, Roger —69 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Lord Palmerston heads the coalition government in Britain after Lord Aberdeen loses a vote of confidence on his conduct of the Crimean War. Holman Hunt's The Scapegoat combines realism and symbolism in an extreme example of Pre-Raphaelite characteristics. Go to Hunt, Holman — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.
David Livingstone, moving down the Zambezi, comes upon the Victoria Falls. Go to Victoria Falls in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. English artist William Simpson sends sketches from the Crimea which achieve rapid circulation in Britain as tinted lithographs. The Christian Socialism of F. Maurice and others is mocked by its opponents as 'muscular Christianity'.
The Origin and Early Development of the Salvation Army in Victorian England
Go to Maurice, F. The Christmas issue of the Illustrated London News includes chromolithographs, introducing the era of colour journalism. Tennyson publishes a long narrative poem, Maud , a section of which 'Come into the garden, Maud' becomes famous as a song. English author Anthony Trollope publishes The Warden , the first in his series of six Barsetshire novels. Go to Trollope, Anthony —82 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Victoria and Albert complete their fairy-tale castle at Balmoral, adding greatly to the nation's romantic view of Scotland.
English chemist William Henry Perkin accidentally creates the first synthetic die, aniline purple now known as mauve. David Livingstone urges upon a Cambridge audience the high ideal of taking 'commerce and Christianity' into Africa. Animal fat on a new issue of cartridges sparks off the Indian Mutiny, also know as the First War of Indian Independence. Go to Indian Mutiny —58 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.
Go to Hughes, Thomas —96 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. After being besieged for five months in Lucknow, the remnants of the British garrison finally escape. Acts of exceptional valour in the Crimean War are rewarded with a new medal, the Victoria Cross, made from the metal of captured Russian guns. Palmerston's government collapses and Lord Derby heads another Conservative minority administration. Burton and Speke reach Lake Tanganyika at Ujiji, a place later famous for the meeting between Livingstone and Stanley. Lucknow is retaken by the British, nearly a year after it fell to the rebels.
Brunel dies just before the maiden voyage of his gigantic final project, the luxury liner The Great Eastern. The end of the Indian Mutiny is followed by brutal British retaliation. Charles Darwin is alarmed to receive in his morning post a paper by Alfred Russell Wallace, outlining very much his own theory of evolution.
The stench in central London, rising from the polluted Thames in a hot summer, creates what becomes known as the Great Stink. US entrepreneur Cyrus W.
Field succeeds in laying a telegraph cable across the Atlantic, but it fails after only a month. Go to Atlantic Cable. Go to Fenian movement in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Mogul Empire — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Speke reaches Lake Victoria and guesses that it is probably the source of the Nile. Joseph Bazalgette is given the task of providing London with a desperately needed new system of sewers. Charles Darwin puts forward the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species , the result of 20 years' research.
Liberal leader Lord Palmerston returns to office as the British prime minister after the collapse of Derby's coalition government. A ton bell is installed above London's Houses of Parliament, soon giving its name Big Ben to both the clock and the clock-tower. In On Liberty John Stuart Mill makes the classic liberal case for the priority of the freedom of the individual. Samuel Smiles provides an inspiring ideal of Victorian enterprise in Self-Help , a manual for ambitious young men. Tennyson publishes the first part of Idylls of the King , a series of linked poems about Britain's mythical king Arthur.
English author George Eliot wins fame with her first full-length novel, Adam Bede. Florence Nightingale opens a training school for nurses in St Thomas's Hospital, establishing nursing as a profession.
Victorian Era Timeline
Charles Dickens begins serial publication of his novel "Great Expectations" in book form Lagos, on the coast of Nigeria, is annexed as a British colony when the royal family prove unable or unwilling to end the slave trade. Go to Lagos in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. English chemist and physicist William Crookes isolates a new element, thallium. An official National Eisteddfod is held for the first time in Wales, in Aberdare. Prince Albert dies of typhoid, plunging Victoria into forty years of widowhood and deep mourning.
Domestic Wounds: Nursing in Louisa May Alcott’s War tales
Mrs Henry Wood publishes her first novel, East Lynne , which becomes the basis of the most popular of all Victorian melodramas. Oxford mathematician Lewis Carroll tells year-old Alice Liddell, on a boat trip, a story about her own adventures in Wonderland. The Metropolitan Railway, the world's first to go underground, opens in London using steam trains between Paddington and Farringdon Street.
The Marylebone Cricket Club, arbiter of cricket, finally rules that overarm bowling is legitimate. The First International is established in London, with Karl Marx soon emerging as the association's leader. Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell presents to the Royal Society his discoveries in the field of electromagnetics, now known collectively as Maxwell's Equations. English surgeon Joseph Lister introduces the era of antiseptic surgery, with the use of carbolic acid in the operating theatre.
Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , a development of the story he had told Alice Liddell three years earlier. A committee to campaign for women's suffrage is formed in Manchester, the first of many in Britain.
Go to women's suffrage in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. Palmerston dies in office, and is succeeded as leader of the Liberal government in Britain by his foreign secretary, Earl Russell. A pressure group for penal reform in Britain is named after the great prison reformer John Howard. Go to Howard, John c. Russell's government falls, and Lord Derby returns for the third time, but again briefly, as Britain's prime minister.
Britain's new Reform Act extends the franchise to working men in British towns.
The world's first croquet tournament takes place in Evesham and is won by Walter Jones-Whitmore. Go to croquet in A Dictionary of British History 1 rev ed. The Canadian nation is called the Dominion of Canada — the first example of 'dominion status'. Go to dominion in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed.
The Queensberry rules, named after the Marquess of Queensberry, introduce padded gloves in boxing, and rounds of three minutes.